The subject of today’s article is VIP peptide and its effects on different conditions, such as Alzheimer’s Disease. If you are interested in the subject, please keep reading.
In multicellular organisms, hormones control various physiological and behavioral processes. Hormones, a kind of signaling molecule, are carried to many organs and have a cumulative effect on how the body grows and develops. VIP, or vasoactive intestinal peptide, is one such endogenous peptide hormone.
Among VIP’s many functions, we describe its neuromodulatory and neurotransmitter roles in great depth here.
Like other biochemicals, VIP peptide has to be kept at the proper concentrations for maximum benefit. VIP peptide levels may become unbalanced for various reasons, including aging, illness (particularly VIPoma, a rare endocrine tumor), and even plain old times. There should be a system to adjust the exogenous injection of peptides at such periods. Visit this website for more resources.
VIP is a 28-residue peptide hormone abundant in the brain and the rest of the nervous system (including the pancreas, gut, and brain).
The peptide may be found across the body, reflecting its pleiotropic activities as a neurotransmitter, vasodilator, immunological regulator, and secretagogue.
VIP has attracted much attention from scientists eager to learn more about its many applications. Some of the essential features of the peptide are briefly discussed here.
History of VIP peptide
An isolated vasodilator from the swine small intestine, VIP peptide, was initially found in the 1970s.
A few years later, experts found VIP in the human cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and reproductive systems and the brain. Since researchers found VIP everywhere, it was associated with many biological processes, such as immune system activity, growth and development, and cellular processes.
How Does VIP Work?
With the help of the SCN Route
Above the optic chiasm lies a tiny brain region called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The sleep-wake cycle occurs nearly precisely once every 24 hours due to the circadian cycle, a natural mechanism. This activity is supposedly more significant during the day and lowers as darkness falls.
VIP peptide helps keep the lines of communication open between brain cells. The lateral portion of the SCN, which also contains the optic chiasm, is home to VIP and its accompanying neurons. Retinal information is transferred to the SCN by these neurons from the optic chiasm. Doing so aids the body in keeping its natural 24-hour cycle.
G protein-coupled receptor-mediated binding
VIP peptide has been shown to interact with VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1 G protein-coupled receptors. The activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway (a crucial regulatory enzyme) is the consequence of its binding to these receptors.
The location of the three receptors is the main distinction between them. However, VPAC2 is expressed in the brain and other peripheral areas such as the pancreas, heart, kidney, skeletal muscles, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive system, whereas PAC1 is mainly expressed in the brain and adrenal region.
VIP and receptor binding may influence several targets in the brain and the rest of the organism because of the receptors’ widespread distribution (depending on receptor location).
The VIP Peptide Effects
For example, VIP peptide has been shown to have the following clinical effects, among many others:
- Bring down the BP
- Increase the relaxation of the gastrointestinal tract’s smooth muscles.
- Induce intestinal production of water and electrolytes
- Heart failure therapy might benefit from this discovery.
- Raise blood pressure via increasing muscular contraction in the heart.
- The liver’s glycogen metabolism could be boosted.
- Maintain an appropriate level of vaginal lubrication
- Limit prolactin production
- Dial back the body’s internal clock (sleep-wake cycle)
- Antioxidant protection for the brain
- Lessen swelling
- Heart fibrosis may be changed.
- Manage lung function
- Research against Covid-19 has shown encouraging early results.
Influence on Alzheimer’s
Although it is unclear what part VIP plays in Alzheimer’s disease, it has been shown that peptide levels and related neuronal levels are considerably reduced in subjects with this cognitive impairment. According to research, treating a mouse model of induced cognitive impairment with VIP peptide decreased the number of beta-amyloid cells. This finding substantiates the peptide’s potential to slow the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
Cardiac Fibrosis Research
The significant cardiac dysfunctions brought on by cardiac fibrosis include weaker contractions, dysfunctional valves, and irregular heart rhythms, so it’s no surprise that this condition is associated with the last stages of several different cardiac diseases. A heart transplant is often necessary for patients with this disease.
Angiotensinogen receptors and angiotensinogen converting enzymes (ACE) are strongly linked in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, both of which cause vascular inflammation